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05年3月昂立阅卷人高口阅卷心得

教育人生网  2005-09-09 来源:www.hjenglish.com

作者简介:刘丹 昂立教育口译项目部教师。上海交通大学英语语言文学硕士。参加2005年3月高级口译笔试阶段阅卷工作。主攻翻译、阅读方向。知识渊博,性格沉稳,文笔优雅。

在高级口译考试中阅读题向来是学生感觉最难的部分。而阅读中,又以问答题为甚。本来时间紧,生词多就读的迷迷糊糊,还要诉诸于文字那就是件头疼事了,而且即使读懂了大意,也不了解阅卷老师的心思,究竟抓哪句?怎样回答才能得分?毕竟一道题就5分啊。

本人有幸参加了05年3月份考试的阅卷,在批阅了一千多份阅读问答题后,偶得一些感悟,了解了些阅卷老师心理,希望能够给备考学生一些小小的启示。

和往年一样,此次问答部分共考了三篇文章。第一篇是讲大学丑闻,和前些年中国一些重点大学的录取丑闻类似,是说Bellerbys college 收取学生昂贵的学费,提供一年的大学基础预备课程,并担保他们进入33所和他们建立关系的英国大学。然而这些大学否认“担保入学资格 ”。第二篇是篇科普文章,讲近几年莫名其妙的二氧化碳含量升高的原因极其危害。 第三篇是经济方面的,讲六年前俄国经济一度低迷,但是靠原油和天然气出口赚了不少钱,财政状况好了,可是其体制改革方面却不成功。

阅卷整体下来,这三篇文章,以最后一篇难度最大,得分率最低。第一篇以Question 3得分最少,第二篇Question 5得分率最高(大多数同学拿了3或4分),Question 7得分最低,第三篇Question 9和Question 10得分低。

阅卷中,强烈感觉到学生答题中的一些共同的薄弱环节,而这些弱点是导致学生失分的主要原因。

1. 总结性问题回答不全面,分不清信息重点

这类问题一般以“Give a brief introduction of…”开头,要求考生就某一问题或情况进行几点的总结。这类问题答案都在原文中,很明显,稍微对文章有些了解的同学都可以答上一两点,可是卷子改下来,却发现这类题目的得分率并不高,原因就在于:这类问题要求有很强的总结能力,答案往往跨越几段。而大多数同学的答案大都只给出一点或两点

例如Question 8:Give a brief introduction of Russia’s economy over the past years.同学一般都会回答以下两点:
1). Just six years later, Russian bonds are again a hot property, Moscow is considered one of the world’s most reliable borrower, and two of the three international rating agencies have given Russia an investment-grade seal of approval.
2). Because Russia’s fortune have turned around so dramatically. And Russia has got many profit form oil and gas exports.

可是一千多份考卷中几乎没有同学答到以下的几点
1) .reduction of domestic debt (from 100% of GDP to 32% to 25%)
2) .reduction of foreign debt and general government debt.
3) .Nine-fold increase of foreign currency reserves
4) More investors are willing to lend money to Russia, they become Russia’s biggest cheerleaders.

原因就在于考生大多在前两段找答案,上述这几点分布在后面的段落中。所以这类题目改下来的总体情况是:大多数人都能得一两分,但再高就难了。另外一道总结性题目第七题竟成为本次阅读问答题中得分最低的题目,很多人只拿到了一分。

作为学生来说,拿不到分数的原因是:读文章结构感差,分不清文章对于一个问题讲了几个方面,读出来模糊一片,答题目时根据感觉盲目乱抓。

我还想说的是,高口的阅读文章当中,信息复杂。有事实,有观点,有例子,有引用,还有插科打诨开玩笑。而所有这些信息中,观点和事实是最重要的,一般来说也是回答问题时的重点,可是很多同学流连于不重要的例子和引用,甚至对作者开的玩笑也当真。

2. 分析阐释性问题理解严重偏差,融入个人主观意志,抓不到点子上

分析阐述性题目一般是针对一点发问,要求考试阐释某句话或某个词组。或者对某个事件进行分析,得出结论。这种问题往往要求对原意有准确深刻的理解,并从正确的角度来回答。这类问题是此次考试中出现数量最多,也是问题最大的一种题目。

Question 5:What is “runaway greenhouse effect” (para.4)? What is “carbon sink”(para.5)
这是本次考试中最简单的一道阐释题,答案就在词组前后,所以很多人都得了4分的高分。
可是碰到稍难的题目3.9.10 学生的答案就五花八门,令人啼笑皆非了。

Question 3:What can be concluded from the replies from the partner universities.
在原文中,33所和Bellerbys college 有关系的学校因收他们的高价生受到谴责,但是这些大学否认和Bellerbys college 有正式协定,否认“保证学生的入学资格”。问你能从学校的回答中得出什么结论。

正确答案的要点应该是
The replies from these universities show that they did not admit they have established such kind of “partnership” with Bellerbys/ denied “guaranteeing” place for students from Bellerys/ to defend themselves explaining that they were clean and honest in enrollment of students from Bellerbys/ they know such practice was unfair and unpopular.

答这道题的关键只需要客观地转述学校的话,说明他们对事件矢口否认就行了。

可是很多同学把这些学校的话当了真,回答为
1) The partner universities take their students but refuse to guarantee anyone a place.
2) They feel it is amazingly unfair, and they and Bellerbys have not any agreement before.
3) Some top universities in Britain do receive Bellerys students but they do not guarantee anyone a place. And the problem plaguing the universities is actually most important.

大约有30%的同学给出了类似的答案,这样的答案一般只能得一分了。这些同学显然对文章的理解表面化了。就好象现在TCL的黄宏生闹挪用公款丑闻,大家不能因为当事人否认就冒然相信啊。

Question 9:  Explain the sentence “But if Russia has been lucky, it has also made most of its luck.”

这里是说,如果说俄国很幸运,有天然气和石油储备,那么他们也充分利用了这一优势,控制政府支出,改革税收制度。答案的要点是:
With the benefits form oil and gas production and export, government expenditure are under control and a “functioning” tax system is fashioned.

可是有近乎半数的同学理解偏差。
1) It is Russia itself has helped Russia change its difficult situation.
2) Russia’s growth is not just because of good luck, it’s mainly because of the president and other officials and good policies and leadership. Russia has tried its best to change its fate.
3) He means that Russia has plenty of oil and the sea of oil as allowed Russia to reduce its foreign debt.
4) Russian achievements can be attributed to not only a luck time and much oil and gas, but also a great fiscal policy adopted by the wise man-Kudrin.

很多同学理解成了俄国虽然幸运,但是没有依靠幸运,或是和政府政策联系起来了,这样的答案很难得分。
Question 10: What does chief economist Peter Westin mean when he says “It’s a well-managed oil story, rather than a reform story.” (para.6)

这道题得分相当低,有将近多半的同学出现了理解错误。本身这句话的理解是有些难度。这句话是说俄国虽然在石油上大发其财,在财政管理方面搞的很出色,可是体制改革很成问题。所以说是well-managed oil story, rather than a reform story,答案应该是:Russia is successful in the management of oil and gas production and in the great achievement in “fiscal management” and is not quite successful in the structural reform, including banking reform and deregulation.

可是很多同学给出了以下答案:
1) The Russian economical situation is proved more by oil rather than government measures.
2) Russia doesn’t depend on reform to be prosperous but depending on their oil and gas selling plan.
3) It’s not truly reform of the Russian economy but the use of oil, which attract the foreign investment.
4) Because the most profit made by Russia is coming from oil, but not to reform.

同学的理解不能完全叫做错误,偏差更为合适,在这里,得低分的关键在于没有解释清楚reform的含义,应该是structural reform,是改革structural issue such as banking reform and deregulation方面

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