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写作部分 避免犯语法错误

教育人生网  2015-02-06 来源:网络
第一章 搞定时态
Verb Tense
 
Verb Tense Overview with Examples一张表搞定英语国家最常用时态
Simple Past
一般过去
Simple Present
一般现在
Simple Future
一般将来
Two years ago, I studied English in America
I study English everyday.
If you are having problems, I will help you study English.
 
I’m going to study English next year.
Past Continuous
过去进行
Present Continuous
现在进行
Future Continuous
将来进行
I was studying English when
you called yeaterday.
I am studying English now.
I will be studying english when you arrive tonight.
 
I’m going to be studying English when you arrive tonight.
Past Perfect
过去完成
Present Perfect
现在完成
Future Perfect
将来完成
I had studied a little English before I moved to the U.S.
I have studied English in several different countries.
I will have studied every tense by the time I finish this course.
 
I’m going to have studied every tense by the time I finish this course.
Past Perfect Continuous过去完成进行
Present Perfect Continuous 现在完成进行
Future Perfect Continuous将来完成进行
I had been studying English for ten years before I moved to the U.S.
I have been studying English for ten years.
I will have been studying English for over three hours by the time you arrive.
 
I’m going to have been studying English for over three hours by the time you arrive.
 
对于许多同学来说,以下几种时态可能比较陌生,是难点
一.现在完成时:have / has + 过去分词
1.表示过去所发生的动作对现在的影响或产生的结果。常与yet,just,before,recently,lately(最近),ever,never等表时间的副词搭配使用。
● He hasn't seen her lately. 
● I haven't finished the book yet.
2.表示一个从过去某个时间开始,延续到现在并可能持续下去的动作,常与表示一段时间的时间状语连用。如:so far(迄今为止),up till now(直到现在),since, for a long time(很长时间),up to present(直到现在),in the past / in the last few years(在过去的几年里),these days(目前)…… 
►. He has worked here for 15 years. 
►. I have studied English since I came here.
►. The foreigner has been away from China for a long time. 
►. So far, I haven't received a single letter from my brother.
3.某些非延续性动词(即:动作开始便终止的动词),在现在完成时中不能与表示一段时间状语搭配。
黄金要点:
I.常见的非延续动词:die, arrive(到达),join(加入),leave(离开),go, refuse(拒 绝),fail(失败),finish,buy,marry,divorce(离婚),awake(醒) ,buy,borrow,lend ...(背三遍!)
II.这类动词并非不能用现在完成时,而是不能接常由for引导的时间状语。
III.但若是用在否定句中,非延续动词的现在完成时可以与表示一段时间的状语连用。
● She has gone away for a month.(误
● She has been away for a month (正)
● The man has died for two years.(误)
● The man has been dead for two years.(正)
● How long have youbought the book?(误)
● How long have you got the book.(正)
4.注意 since的用法:
►. They haven't had any troublesince they came here.
►. It has been ten years since we met last time. 
►. He has been heresince 1980. 
►. He has been heresince ten years ago.
5.几组对比:
He has gone to Shanghai. 他到上海去了。 
He has been to Shanghai. 他去过上海。
She has gone. 她已走了。 
She is gone. 她缺席了。(or她死了。)
The door has been closed. 门关上了。(动作)
The door is closed. 门是关着的。(状态)
测试精编:
1. The prices ________ going up all the time in the past few years. 
A. keep        B. kept          C. have kept          D. are keeping 
2. For the whole period of two months, there ________ no rain in this area. 
A. is           B. will be C. has been           D. have been 
3. Today is Jane's wedding day. She ________ John. 
A. have just married with          B. was just married to 
C. has just been married to         D. just has been married to 
4. No wonder the flower have withered, they ________ any water for ages.
A. hadn't       B. haven't       C. haven't had          D. hadn't had 
5. Nowadays computer ________ a wide application with the development of production and science. 
A. found       B. has found      C. finds D. had found
二.现在完成进行时:have / has + been + 现在分词
1.表示从过去某时开始发生,一直延续到现在且可能延续下去的动作。(最好将此定义读 5遍)
►. I've been waiting for an hour but she hasn't come. 
►. He has been running after her for 8 years.(run after: 追求)
2.表某种感情色彩。
►. I've been wanting to see you for so many years. 
►. Who's been telling you such nonsense.
释惑要点:现在完成时与现在完成进行时的对比:
现在完成时强调“结果”,而完成进行时强调“动作的延续”。
►. I have thought of it.(我已想到了这一点。)
►. I have been thinking of it.(我一直在想这一点。)
►. Jim has painted the door.(杰姆已将门油漆过了。)
►. Jim has been painting the door.(杰姆一直在油漆门。)
测试精编:
1. They ________ us since five o'clock this morning. 
A. are helping            B. have been helping 
C. have been helped       D. have helped 
2. I ________ the book the whole day, yet I haven't finished it. 
A. have been reading       B. have read 
C. am reading             D. had been reading 
3. Please come in. We ________ about your paper. 
A. talk                   B. had been talking 
C. have been talking        D. would have talked 
4. Such natural resources as coal and petroleum ________. 
A. gradually are exhausted     B. are being gradually exhausted 
C. have gradually exhausting   D. have been exhausting gradually 
5. It ________ almost every day so far this month. 
A. is raining       B. rained        C. rains         D. has been raining
用所给动词正确时态填空。
1. You should go to bed. You ________ (watch) TV for 5 hours. 
2. I ________ (write) letters since breakfast. 
3. I ________ (write) 3 letters since breakfast. 
4. Sorry, but Mr. Smith ________ (leave) for Beijing.
5. I ________ (look) for him everywhere, where can he be?
三.过去完成时:had + 过去分词
1.表示过去某个动作或某个具体时间之前已经发生、完成的动作。“过去的过去”。 
● They had got everything ready before I came. 
● The play had begunbefore I got to the theater with my boyfriend.
2.过去完成时常用于 hardly / scarcely ... when, no sooner ... than等固定句型结构中。(此乃超级重点句型,意为:“一……就”)
● She had hardly / scarcely gone to bed when the bell rang. 
● No sooner had he arrived at the railway station than he met her parents.
(注意 no sooner 在句首时句型倒装。)
3.intend(打算),mean(意味),hope(希望),want(想要),plan(计划)等动词的过去完成时用来表示本打算做而没有做的事。
● I had intended to call on you yesterday, but someone came to see me just when I was about to leave.
(……原想昨天去看你……)
● They had planed to hold a football match last week, but they had to cancel it because the bad weather.
(……原计划上周举行一场足球赛……)
测试精编:
1. -Let's hurry! The president is coming. -Oh, I was afraid that we ________. 
A. already miss him            B. had already missed him 
C. will miss him already         D. have already missed him 
2. Your letter came just as I ________ my office. 
A. was leaving                B. would leave 
C. had left                    D. left 
3. I ________ my keys, I can't remember where I last sawthem. 
A. was losing      B. lost        C. had lost       D. have lost 
4. Nobody knew where the teacher ________. 
A. has gone                   B. would have gone 
C. had gone                   D. would be gone 
5. The sportsmen ________ training for 3 hours when the coach told them to break off for rest. 
A. have been      B. are 
C. had been       D. were 
四.过去完成进行时:had been + 现在分词
表示过去某个时间之前一直在进行的动作。
● She said that she had been typing a paper before I came in. 
比较:
►. The girl had cleaned up the room, so it was tidy. 
►. The girl had been clearing up the room, so we had to wait outside.
测试精编:
1. It ________ for four days when we arrived, so the roads were very muddy. 
A. was raining     B. would be raining     C. had been raining     D. has rained 
2. He told us that he ________ there since 1982. 
A. has been living                     B. had been living 
C. would have lived                    D. was living 
3. He had been learning English for 3 years before he came here and ________ now.
A. is still learning                      B. had been learning
C. was still learning                    D. has been learning 
4. By the end of last week, he ________ in the company for 10 years. 
A. had worked                        B. had been working 
C. will have worked                    D. would have worked 
5. Not until then did people know that he ________ important military information to the enemy for a long time. 
A. sold        B. would sell        C. had sold        D. had been selling
五.将来进行时:shall / will be + 现在分词
1.表示将来某个时刻正在进行的动作:
►. What will you be doing this time tomorrow? 
〖比较:〗
►. Tom won't cut the grass because he is afraid of being tired.(说明意图)
►. Tom won't be cutting the grass.(无意图、仅陈述事实)
2.用将来进行时询问别人的计划、打算比用一般将来时更显礼貌 。
►. Will you be having supper with us this evening?
3.将来进行时表示对即将发生的动作的推测。
►. She will be arriving at Shanghai tomorrow morning. 
►. The car will be going at the speed of 100 miles an hour.
 
 
第二章 搞定英语从句
Subordination
英语从句主要有定语从句,状语从句和名词性从句(主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句,同位语从句)
一.定语从句
1. 定语从句:由关系代词 who, whom, whose, that, which; 关系副词 when, where, why 引导。
(下面十个句子请读 5遍并脱口译出!) 
1. The death notices tell us about people who have died during the week. 
2. The man (whom) you spoke to just now is my friend. 
3. The building whose lights are on is beautiful. 
4. Please find a place which we can have a private talk in. 
5. The knee is the joint where the thighbone meets the large bone of the lower leg. 
6. He still remembers the day when he went to school. 
7. It is no need telling us the reason why you didn't finish it in time. 
8. He has three sons, two of whom died in the war. 
9. Mr. Smith, whose wife is a clerk, teaches us English. 
10. In the Sunday paper there are comics, which children enjoy.
2. 只能用that和who引导的定语从句
A.all, nothing, anything, a few, one做先行词指物时 
B.先行词前有形容词最高级修饰时,后面常跟that而不是which. 
C.先行词前有 the only, the first, the last, the next, the very等词修饰时,引导词只能用that。 
D.当先行词是 anyone, anybody, everyone, everybody, someone, somebody时,后面要用who或whom;
● All that glitters is not gold. 闪光的并非都是金子。
3. as 引导定语从句
as 引导的定语从句有两种形式:
A.引导限制性语从句。
在此类定语从句中,as常与主语中作为其先行词的such, the same或as联用构成,“such... as”,“the same... as”和“as ...as”句型,可代替先行词。
例如:We hope to get such a tool as he is using. 我们希望得到他正在用的那种工具。
B.as 引导非限制性定语从句时,作用与which相同,as作为关系代词代替整个主句。
(这是语法考试的一个考点。)
例如:He was a foreigner , as I knew from his accent . 他是个外国人,我从他的口音可以听出来
[注意区别]:
as 引导的从句用于句首、句中或句后,而which引导的定语从句不能放在句首。
例如:As is reported, a foreign delegation will visit the city.
据报道,一个外国代表团将访问这个城市。
二.状语从句
超级作文联接词及词组,全部拿下!
① 原因:because, since, now that(既然)as, for, this reason.... 
② 结果:so that, so, therefore, consequently, so as to, as a result .... 
③ 时间:after, before, when, while, as, until, as soon as, since, by the time, once, lately, presently, shortly after, currently, at present, nowadays ... 
④ 条件:if, only if., once, unless, in the event (that), in case (that), provided that, on the condition that, etc. 
⑤ 让步:though, although, even though(if), no matter what / how / when→ whatever / however / whenever ....
⑥ 目的:in order that, in order to, to, 
⑦ 比较:than, as ... as, by comparison(相比较),by contrast(相对照)....
三.名词性从句
王牌要点:通常由 that或疑问词导出。
1. How some mammals came to live in the sea is not know.(主语从句) 
2. The attorney told his client that they had little chance of winning the case.(宾语从句) 
3. The problem is what we'll do next.(表语从句) 
4. We have no idea that he has come back.(同位语从句)
同位语(Appositive): 
同位语是英语语法的重点内容,也是各类考试中的一个考点,同时,在写作中正确运用同位语可以使你的句型更加简洁得体。 
新概念英语》 第三册第一课有这样一个句子: When reports came into London zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously. 
(当伦敦动物园接到报告说,在伦敦以南45英里处发现一只美洲狮时,这些报告并没有受到重视。) 
在这里,a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London就是同位语从句,它本来应该放在 “reports”后面,这里却被放在了谓语成分 came into London zoo的后面,目的是让句型显得更为稳重。
I.简单记忆:同位语从句,就是对某些名词做进一步的解释的句子。
I was greatly shocked when I heard the news that his father died yesterday. 
(that 引导的句子解释了news的内容,注意:that不做任何成分) 
We have to face the fact that the weather is unexpectedly bad. 
(that 引导的句子解释了fact的内容)
II.联想记忆:
能接同位词从句的名词有:belief(信仰),fact,idea,doubt,rumor(谣言),evidence(证据),conclusion(结论),suggestion(建议),problem,order,answer,discovery(发 现)explanation(解释),principle(原则),possibility(可能性),truth,promise(承诺),report(报告),statement(声明),knowledge(知识),opinion(观点),likelihood(可能性)
[大声朗读三遍,背下即可。]
III.王牌要点:
● 同位语一般由that引导,但也可以用关系代词which, who, what和关系副词when, where, why, how或 whether 引导。 
There arouse the question whether we could win the game. 
I have no idea how to explain it.
● 一些介词词组后面也能引导同位语从句。(非常经典之功能句式,可用于四六级托福作文,不妨一试!): 
on the assumption(在……前提下),
on the ground(由于……原因),
on the condition that(在……条件下),
with the exception(有……例外)
owing to the fact(由于……事实);
on the understanding(基于……理解);
The young lady promised to marry the old man on the condition that he bought her a villa. 
那位年轻的女士答应嫁给那位老头,条件是他给她买一幢别墅。
IV.分隔式同位语从句
为了使句型平衡不至于头重脚轻,有时同位语从句可以放到句子的末尾,(读两遍此定义,然后看倒句:) 
An idea came to him that he might write to her to ask more information about the matter. 
I got information from my friend that there will be a marvelous American movie "Titanic".
V. 同位语从句与定语从句之区别
简单记忆:定语从句的引导词 that 或 which在句子中用作主语或宾语,而同位语从句的引导词that只起连接主句和从句之作用,不用作任何成分。
示例:I've got an answer that A is right. (同位语从句,that 不做成分) 
I've got an answer that surprised me a lot.(定语从句,that做定语从句的主语)
VI.王牌重点:可以充当同位语的词组或短语。
1)名词短语。(使句型更为简洁) 
Bill Clinton, the president of America, came to China to pay an official visit in 1998. 
Lu Xun, one of the greatest essayists in China, played an overwhelmingly important role in Chinese literature history. 
2)动名词词组亦可用作同位语:别忘了加逗号。(使句型更为流畅) 
I'm crazy about the game, playing baseball. 
Going to concert, that sounds a great idea. 
3)不定式短语。(陌生只是掌握的开始) 
The problem what to do next remains unsolved. 
Her claim to have finished his work is nothing but a white lie. 
4)形容词词组。(有逗号隔开) 
All the workers, young or old, should be treated equally. 
Young man, short or tall, should have the right to take the opportunity.
VII. 同位语的引导词。(重要!这是中高级写作中不可缺少的引导成分)
引导词用来表示同位语与它所说明的同位成分之间的关系: 
1.namely, that it is, that is to say(也就是说), in other words(换句话说), or, for short 表示等同关系。 
2.such as, say, so to speak(譬如说), including(包括), for instance(或 for example (e.g. / eg),表示举例和列举关系。 
3.especially, mostly, chiefly, or better, in particular, particularly表示突出重点,(在高难度阅读中表示后面的部分为更重要或更突出的部分,是出题的关键点。)
测试精编
I. 选择正确选项:
1. ________ all behavior is learned behavior is a basic assumption of social scientists. 
A. Nearly                             B. That nearly 
C. It is nearly                          D. When nearly 
2. The people at the party were worried about Janet because no one was aware ________ she had gone. 
A. where that                          B. of where 
C. of the place where                    D. the place 
3. — Susan hasn't written us for a long time. — What do you suppose________ to her? 
A. that happened                        B. happened 
C. to happen                           D. having happened 
4. — May I have the loan? ________ you offer good security. 
A. But          B. Unless         C. Provided          D. But for 
5. Gorillas are quiet animals, ________ they are able to make about twenty different sounds. 
A. how         B. in spite of         C. because of          D. even though 
6. The little White House in warm springs was the Georgia home of President Franklin-D. Roosevelt _______there on April 12, 1945. 
A. who died        B. died        C. while died        D. he died 
7. Essentially, a theory is an abstract, symbolic representation of ________ reality. 
A. what it is conceived                   B. that is conceived 
C. what is conceived to be                D. that is being conceived of 
8. Seeds usually germinate ________ the temperature is favorable. 
A. if          B. whereas          C. as a result          D. in consequences 
9. Francis Preston Blair. Jr, ________ born in Kentucky, lived and practiced in Missouri. 
A. was        B. he was           C. although           D. who he was
 
第三章 搞定虚拟语气
THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
虚拟语气用来表达不可能或难以实现的愿望,与事实相反的假设,通常分为基本的三种形式。
1. 与现在事实相反的虚拟:
If + did / were + ..., ... would 
should
could          + do (动词原形) 
might 
If I were you, I would go abroad at once. (I am not you.) 
If he knew it now, he could help me. (He doesn't know it now.)
2. 与过去事实相反的虚拟:
If + had done + ..., ... would (might) have done ... 
If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I would have phoned you.
 (I didn't know your telephone number.) 
If you had come here a little earlier just now, you might have met her.
 (You didn't come here earlier.)
3. 与将来事实相反的虚拟:
(1) If + should + v., ... would + v. 
(可能性很小)(译作“万一”)
If it should rain tomorrow, you could stay at home. 
If I should fail, what should Ido?
(2) If + did / were to + v ..., would + v.
 (完全不可能) 
If the sun were to rise in the west, I would lend you the money. 
If you finished it in 3 minutes, I would give you my car.
4. 金牌特殊重点:!! 
[简单联想记忆]: 
● 下列动词后的“宾语从句”中需要用虚拟形式,即should + 动词原形,should在美国英语中要省略。此类常见的动词有:order, ask, decide, demand, require, recommend, suggest(建议)insist(坚决要求),advise, etc. 
例句:He suggested that we (should) help them with English. 
The teacher ordered that the homework (should) be finished within half an hour.
● 下列名词后的同位语从句中要用“should + 动词原形”(should可省去)的虚拟。 
suggestion,  order,  request,  demand,  importance,  proposal. 
He made a suggestion that we (should) have a fancy dress party. 
I think it is a thing of importance that it (should) be done soon.
● It is / was important / necessary / natural / essential / advisable / strange / surprising, ect. + that +主语+ should + v. 
It is strange that you should say such a thing. 
It was important that you should tell me all the information.
● wish后的宾语从句中,as if 后的状语从句中,须用下列的虚拟形式:
主 + wish+ (that) + 主 + did / were(指现在)
haddone(指过去)
would+ v.(指将来) 
Iwishthat I met my uncle now. 
IwishI had met my uncle yesterday. 
IwishI could meet my uncle tomorrow.
● It is (high) time that ... + did / were ... 
It is time that you went to bed.
● would rather that ... + did / were ... 
I would rather that you were not here now.
 
测试精编
I. 选择正确选项:
1. I ________ he had taught me the word, but he didn't. 
A. believe       B. hope      C. wish       D. think
2. The man in charge recommends that this matter ________ at the meeting. 
A. would be discussed   B. will be discussed  C. be discussed    D. may be discussed 
3. It is raining now, otherwise we ________ go out play. 
A. could        B. can        C. may       D. will 
4. ________ he come late, give him the message. 
A. Had         B. Should       C. Would       D. Did 
5. Hadn't my car broke down, I ________ the train. 
A. would have caught       B. might catch       C. could catch       D. would catch 
6. I would have helped him if I had time, but I ________. 
A. haven't         B. had         C. didn't        D. wouldn't 
7. The dam was built in time to protect the inhabitants from the flood; ________. 
A. otherwise the damage would be beyond measure. 
B. the damage, otherwise, should be very great. 
C. the damage could have been very serious otherwise. 
D. the damage caused, therefore, many of them homeless. 
8. Don't act as if you ________ the only pebble on the beach. 
A. are        B. were        C. have been       D. would be
第四章 搞定非谓语动词
一.不定式
1.定义:具有名词、形容词及副词性质并具有时态、语态变化。
2.形式:(以do为例)
主动语态                 被动语态
一般时            to do                     to be done
进行时            to be doing 
完成时            to have done               to have been done 
完成进行时        to have been doing 
3.用法: 
(1)用作主语: 
To speak good English is not easy. 
or: It is not easy to speak good English. 
(采用形式主语 it 以避免头重脚轻)
It took me an hour to do the work. 
(2)用作宾语:
She decided to take the examination. 
I hope to meet him soon. 
(3)宾语补足语:
They expected us to help them. 
Hewants his son to study hard. 
金牌重点: 
不定式作宾补,如谓语动词是感官动词,使役性动词(see, hear, notice, watch, make, have, let...),则不定式符号“to”须省略,但在被动语态中不能省。 
I heard them sing in the classroom. 
I made her clean the room. 
The girl is heard to sing an English song. 
(4)用作表语:To teach is to learn. 
His job is to sell cars. 
(5)用作状语,表示目的,结果。 
We come to school to study English.(目的)
           = in order to 
I hurried to the store, only to find it closed.(结果) 
(6)定语:不定式短语作定语须位于名词之后。
He asked for a piece of paper to write it on. 
= to write it on the piece of paper. 
The poor man has no house to live in. 
= to live in the house. 
Have you anything to do? 
= to do anything 
4.不定式的时态意义:
She seems to dance very well.(现在情况)
She seems to be dancing in the dancing hall.(正在进行) 
She seems to have danced well.(过去情况) 
Has was happy to have been staying with his uncle.(动作持续一段时间) 
5.不定式语态:
The doctor recommended him to air the room. 
The doctor recommended the room to be aired. 
She expects the police to find her bicycle. 
She expects her bicycle to be found by the police. 
She felt a bit puzzled as he had asked her such a question.
She felt a bit puzzled to have been asked such a question. 
6.不定式否定形式:not to do ... 
He got up early in order not to miss the train. 
测试精编
1. Did you find out ________ the pie out of oven? 
A. to take      B. have taken       C. when to take        D. being taken 
2. You would be irritated if you watched the mail ________ on your desk every day. 
A. putting up   B. to be put up      C. to pile up           D. pile up 
3. We shall set Jim ________ the passage. 
A. explaining   B. explained        C. to explain          D. explain 
4. In fact, she would rather leave for San Francisco ________ in Los Angeles. 
A. tostay      B. than stay         C. than staying        D. than have stayed 
5. Madame Curies is believed ________ the radium. 
A. discovering   B. having discovered   C. to have discovered   D. to discover
二.动名词:
1.动名词定义:具有名词性质,可在句中担任主语,宾语表语,定语,具有所有格作修饰语。 
2.形式:以do为例
doing → being done 
having done → having been done 
3.用法: 
(1)主语:
Saving is easier than doing. 
His coming here will be a great help. 
It is no use waiting here, he has left. 
It is no goodsmoking. 
There is no getting along with him.(简直无法和他相处)
……以上例句皆必须要背诵!…… 
(2)表语:His job is keeping the hall clean as possible. 
Seeing is believing. 
(3)宾语:
a. 动词宾语:He admitted taking the book. 
I do mind your smoking here. 
重磅要点,请读20 遍:下列动词须跟动名词作宾语: 
admit,  appreciate,  avoid,  complete,  delay,  deny,  enjoy,  fancy,  finish,  mind,  practice,  resent,  risk,  suggest,  allow,  permit... 
特注:以allow为例:allow + doing sth(动名词作宾语)。但可以:Allow sb to do sth(不定式作宾补)。
这类动词常见如 advise, allow, permit, recommend, etc. 
b. 作介词宾语:
He left without saying goodbye to us. 
I'm looking forwardto meeting you.(to 在这里是介词)
(4)定语:
reading room     swimming pool     walking stick 
4.动名词复合结构:由名词所有格或物主代词与动名词构成。
His leaving is a great loss. 
Mother dislikes my (me) working late. 
John's having seen her did not make her worried. 
注:动名词复合结构多作主语或宾语,作主语是必须是所有格。如上二例,但作宾语时可以用所有格,也可用普通格。(解释得很拗口,请将例句看透即可!)
5.动名词时态:
I am thinking of setting a new dictionary.(以后) 
He never talked to me about his having been in Paris.(以前) 
6.动名词语态:
He doesn't like being flattered. 
I heard of his having been chosen to be the coach of the team. 
7.动名词与不定式在用法上的几点比较:
(1)在 begin,start,continue 等词后用动名词或不定式区别不大。 
He began writing / to write in 1980. 
(2)下列动词跟不定式或动名词所表示意义差别很大,注意使用。(用心咀嚼!)
He stopped talking. 停止讲话。 
He stopped to talk. 停下来开始讲话。
Please remember to post the letter. 记住寄走这封信。
I remember posting the letter. 我记得寄出了这封信。
I forgot to lock the door yesterday. 昨天我忘记锁门了。(未锁)
I forgot telling him the news. 我忘了我曾告诉过他这个消息。(做过的事情忘记了)
测试精编
1.The workers favor ________ funds to build the bridge. 
A. to raise      B. raising      C. raised      D. rising 
2. No one can avoid ________ by one's surroundings. 
A. to be influenced                     B. having influenced  
C. influencing                         D. being influenced 
3. She doesn't feel like ________ tonight. 
A. dancing     B. to dance     C. dance     D. to be dancing 
4. Does Mr Wang object to ________ her the money? 
A. that we lend       B. be lent       C. lending      D. lend 
5. I can still recall ________ with him many years ago. 
A. to stay     B. to staying     C. to have stayed     D. having stayed
三.分词
1.分词的性质:
具有形容词性质,可以在句中担任表语、定语、宾补、状语,现在分词表示主动,且动作在进行:过去分词表示被动,或动作已完成。
2.分词的形式:
例:             write (vt)                           rise (vi) 
主动语态        被动语态           主动         过去分词
时态
现在时        writing          being written         rising        risen  /  
完成时        having written    having been written    having risen    /  
3.分词的用法:
(1)定语    分词置于被修饰名词前
分词短语于置于被修饰名词后 
a sleeping baby = a baby who is sleeping 
a running dog = a dog which is running 
a broken glass = a glass which is broken 
a beaten team = a team which is beaten(beaten 是被打败的意思)
This is the problem discussed at the last meeting. 
The problem being discussed is very important. 
(2)表语:The book is interesting. 
He is interested in the book. 
The news is exciting. 
He feels excited. 
(3)宾语补足语:
When I woke up, I found my mother sitting beside me. 
I'd like to havethis package weighed. 
掌握精髓:动词不定式作宾语表示动作的全过程,而现在分词作宾补表示动作正在进行;过去分词表示被动概念。
(4)状语:(以下例句值得一背!)
① If you turn to the left, you'll find the station. 
→ Turning to the left, you'll find the station. 
② As I didn't receive her letter, I called her up by telephone. 
→ Not receiving her letter, I called her up by telephone. 
③ While I was walking to school yesterday morning, I met a friend. 
→ Walking to school yesterday morning, I met a friend. 
④ When she was asked it she had any bad habit, she answeredthat she was a heavy smoker. 
→ Asked if she had any bad habit, she answered that she was a heavy smoker.
你知道吗?注意:在运用此类句型时主语前后要保持一致。
① Whenschool was over, the boys went home. 
→ Being over, the boys went home. × 
School being over, the boys went home. √ 
② As my homework has been done, I have nothing else to do. 
→ My homework having been done, I have nothing else to do. 
③ Ifweather permits, I'll start tomorrow. 
→ Weather permitting, I'll start tomorrow. 
④ I fwe judge from his face, he must be ill. 
→ Judging from his face, he must be ill.(这里应该是 we judging ...,但若主语是we, one, you表示“一般人”,主语可省略)
实际上,这里涉及到独立主格结构问题,以后在作分解! 
4.分词的时态: 
现在分词一般时表示此动作与主句谓语动词同时发生。 
现在分词完成时表示此动作在主句谓语动词之前发生。
Entering the room, hesaw he. (几乎同时) 
Not having tried his best, he failed in the exam. (分词动作在前) 
5.语态:现在分词一般时被动表动作正在被进行,完成时被动强调分词所表示的动作先被完成。
The ships being loaded and unloaded belong to us. 
Having been warned of typhoon, the fishermen sailed for the nearest harbor.(渔民先被告知而后驶向港口) 
测试精编
Exercises: 
1. The ________ news made them ________. 
A. excite / exciting          B. exciting / excited 
C. exciting / to be excited     D. excited / excited 
2. ________ an answer from the committee, he was worried. 
A. Having not got           B. Getting not 
C. Not having got           D. Having not been got 
3. ________, all the quarrels came to an end. 
A. The lost money was found           B. Was the lost money found 
C. Because the lost money found        D. With the lost money found 
4. Many of our dreams ________ impossible in the past have come true. 
A. were considered          B. to be considered 
C. considering              D. considered 
5. The hall was so noisy for the speaker to make himself ________. 
A. hear       B. being heard       C. hearing       D. heard 
6. After a whole day's heavy work, the old worker returned home, ________. 
A. hungry and exhausted        B. hungry and exhausting 
C. hungry and being exhausted   D. hungry and exhaust
第五章 搞定倒装
INVERSION
根据语法要求,把谓语动词置于主语前,称为完全倒装,把助动词或情态动词置于主语前,称为部分倒装。
1.副词如:in, out, down, there, here, off, over, away, etc. 句子倒装。(完全倒装,但主语不能是代词)
Down jumped the murderer from the tenth floor. 
In came Miss Green.
(特别注意:当主语是人称代词时不倒装。) 
Away she went!(她走了!)
Here you are!(你在这儿!)
2.only + 副词(介词短语)位于句首,句子要倒装。
Only then did he realize that he was mistaken. 
Only by working hard can we succeed in doing anything. 
3.well, so, often, such, few, little 放于句首,句子形成倒装。
So fine was the weather that we all went out lying in the sun. 
Well did I know him and well did he know me. 
4.否定词或具有否定意义的词及词组用在句首时,句子须倒装。此类词有: neither,nor,hardly,scarcely, rarely,seldom,not,never,not only,barely,at no time,nowhere等。
e.g. — Jack could not swim. 
— Neither could Tom. 
Never have I seen such a good movie. 
5.as引导让步状语从句,须倒装。(准确地说,是将需要强调的词提到as的前面。)
Rich as he is, he spends a cent on charity. 
Try as he does, he never seems able to do the work beautifully. 
6.在表示祝愿的句子中。
May you make greater progress! (愿你取得更大进步!)
7.在虚拟条件句中,连词if省略时,句型要倒装,即将were, had, should等词提到句首。
Were I you, I would go abroad to take advanced study. 
我要是你,就出国进修了。 
Should he come tomorrow, he would help us to settle the problem. 
他要是明天来的话,他会帮我们解决这个问题的。
测试精编
I.选择正确选项:
1. ________ received law degrees as today. 
A. Never so many women have 
B. Never have so many women 
C. The women aren't ever 
D. Women who have never 
2. ________ the Bob's belongings that he carried them in a bundle slung over his shoulders. 
A. Were so few             B. Few were so 
C. So few were             D. They were so few 
3. Only after a baby seal is pushed into the sea by its mother ________ to swim. 
A. how will it learn          B. will it learn how 
C. it will learn how          D. and it learns how 
4. Not only ________ a promise, but he also kept it. 
A. did he made             B. he made 
C. did he make             D. he makes 
5. Nowhere in the world ________ . 
A. travelers can buy so much beauty for so little as in Hawaii. 
B. no one can buy so much beauty for so little money as Hawaii. 
C. so much beauty can be bought for so little money in Hawaii. 
D. can travelers buy so much beauty for so little money as in Hawaii. 
6. No sooner ________ gone home than it began to rain heavily. 
A. had I      B. have I      C. I had      D. I have
7. Not for a moment ________ the truth of your story. 
A. he has doubted           B. he doubts 
C. did he doubt             D. he did doubt 
8. ________ succeed in doing anything. 
A. Only by working hard we can B. By only working hard we can C. Only by working hard can we D. Only we can work hard
第一章
现在完成时:
单选 1. C    2. C    3. C    4. C    5. B 
现在完成进行时: 
1. B    2. A    3. C    4. B    5. D 
1. have been watching           2. have been writing 
3. have written                 4. has left 5. have been looking 
过去完成时: 
1. B    2. A    3. D    4. C    5. C 
过去完成进行时: 
1. C    2. B    3. A    4. B    5. D 
将来进行时。(12)过去将来进行时 
1. B    2. C    3. C    4. B    5. C
第二章
1. B   2. B   3. B   4. C   5.D   6.A   7. C   8.A   9. C
第三章
1. C   2. C   3.A   4. B   5.A   6. C   7. C  8. B
第四章 非谓语动词 
(一)1. C    2. D    3. C    4. B    5. C 
(二)1. B    2. D    3. A    4. C    5. D 
(三)1. B    2. C    3. D    4. D    5. D    6. A
第五章 倒装
1. B   2. C    3. B   4. C    5. D    6.A    7.C    8. C  
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